Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Stag Moose - Facts and Figures

Stag Moose - Facts and Figures Name: Stag Moose; also known as Cervalces scotti Habitat: Swamps and woodlands of North America Historical Epoch: Pleistocene-Modern (2 million-10,000 years ago) Size and Weight: About eight feet long and 1,500 pounds Diet: Grass Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; thin legs; elaborate antlers on the males About the Stag Moose The Stag Moose (which is sometimes hyphenated and capitalized differently, as the Stag-moose) wasnt technically a moose, but an overgrown, moose-like deer of Pleistocene North America equipped with unusually long, skinny legs, a head reminiscent of an elk, and elaborate, branched antlers (on the males) matched only by its fellow prehistoric ungulates Eucladoceros and the Irish Elk. The first Stag Moose fossil was discovered in 1805 by William Clark, of Lewis and Clark fame, at Big Bone Lick in Kentucky;Â   a second specimen was unearthed in New Jersey (of all places) in 1885, by William Barryman Scott (hence the Stag-Mooses species name, Cervalces scotti); and since then various individuals have been unearthed in states suchas Iowa and Ohio. (See a slideshow of 10 Recently Extinct Game Animals) Like its namesake, the Stag Moose led a very moose-like lifestylewhich, if you dont happen to be familiar with mooses, entailed wandering swamps, marshes and tidelands in search of tasty vegetation and keeping a close eye out for predators (such as the Saber-Toothed Tiger and the Dire Wolf, which also inhabited Pleistocene North America). As for the most distinctive characteristic of Cervalces scotti, its enormous, branching horns, those were clearly a sexually selected characteristic: the males of the herd locked antlers during mating season, and the winners earned the right to procreate with females (thus ensuring a new crop of big-antlered males, and so on down through the generations). Like its fellow plant-eating megafauna mammals of the last Ice Ageincluding the Woolly Rhino, the Woolly Mammoth, and the Giant Beaverthe Stag Moose was hunted by early humans, at the same time as its population was restricted by inexorable climate change and the loss of its natural pasture. However, the proximate cause of the Stag Mooses demise, 10,000 years ago, was probably the arrival in North America of the true moose (Alces alces), from eastern Eurasia via the Bering Land Bridge in Alaska. Alces alces, apparently, was better at being a moose than the Stag Moose, and its slightly smaller size helped it to subsist on rapidly dwindling amounts of vegetation.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Understanding Scaled Scores on Standardized Tests

Understanding Scaled Scores on Standardized Tests Scaled scores are a type of exam score. They are commonly used by testing companies that administer high stakes exams, such as admissions, certification and licensure exams. Scaled scores are also used for K-12 Common Core testing and other exams that assess student skills and evaluate learning progress. Raw Scores vs. Scaled Scores The first step to understanding scaled scores is to learn how they differ from raw scores. A raw score represents the number of exam questions you answer correctly. For example, if an exam has 100 questions, and you get 80 of them correct, your raw score is 80. Your percent-correct score, which is a type of raw score, is 80%, and your grade is a B-. A scaled score is a raw score that has been adjusted and converted to a standardized scale. If your raw score is 80 (because you got 80 out of 100 questions correct), that score is adjusted and converted into a scaled score. Raw scores can be converted linearly or nonlinearly. Scaled Score Example The ACT is an example of an exam that uses linear transformation to convert raw scores to scaled scores. The following conversation chart shows how raw scores from each section of the ACT are transformed into scaled scores.   Raw Score English Raw Score Math Raw Score Reading Raw Score Science Scaled Score 75 60 40 40 36 72-74 58-59 39 39 35 71 57 38 38 34 70 55-56 37 37 33 68-69 54 35-36 - 32 67 52-53 34 36 31 66 50-51 33 35 30 65 48-49 32 34 29 63-64 45-47 31 33 28 62 43-44 30 32 27 60-61 40-42 29 30-31 26 58-59 38-39 28 28-29 25 56-57 36-37 27 26-27 24 53-55 34-35 25-26 24-25 23 51-52 32-33 24 22-23 22 48-50 30-31 22-23 21 21 45-47 29 21 19-20 20 43-44 27-28 19-20 17-18 19 41-42 24-26 18 16 18 39-40 21-23 17 14-15 17 36-38 17-20 15-16 13 16 32-35 13-16 14 12 15 29-31 11-12 12-13 11 14 27-28 8-10 11 10 13 25-26 7 9-10 9 12 23-24 5-6 8 8 11 20-22 4 6-7 7 10 18-19 - - 5-6 9 15-17 3 5 - 8 12-14 - 4 4 7 10-11 2 3 3 6 8-9 - - 2 5 6-7 1 2 - 4 4-5 - - 1 3 2-3 - 1 - 2 0-1 0 0 0 1 Source: ACT.org The Equating Process The scaling process creates a base scale that serves as a reference for another process known as equating. The equating process is necessary to account for differences between multiple versions of the same test. Although test makers try to keep the difficulty level of a test the same from one version to the next, differences are inevitable. Equating allows the test maker to statistically adjust scores so that the average performance on version one of the test is equal to average performance on version two of the test, version three of the test and so on. After undergoing both scaling and equating, scaled scores should be interchangeable and easily comparable no matter which version of the test was taken.   Equating Example Lets look at an example to see how the equating process can impact scaled scores on standardized tests.  Imagine that say you and a friend are taking the SAT. You will both be taking the exam at the same test center, but you will be taking the test in January, and your friend will be taking the test in February. You have different testing dates, and there is no guarantee that you will both take the same version of the SAT. You may see one form of the test, while your friend sees another. Although both tests have similar content, the questions are not exactly the same. After taking the SAT, you and your friend get together and compare your results. You both got a raw score of 50 on the math section, but your scaled score is 710 and your friends scaled score is 700. Your pal wonders what happened since both of you got the same number of questions correct. But the explanation is pretty simple; you each took a different version of the test, and your version was more difficult than his. To get the same scaled score on the SAT, he would have needed to answer more questions correctly than you. Test makers that use an equating process use a different formula to create a unique scale for each version of the exam. This means that there is no one raw-to-scale-score conversion chart that can be used for every version of the exam. That is why, in our previous example, a raw score of 50 was converted into 710 on one day and 700 on another day. Keep this in mind as you are taking practice tests and using conversion charts to transform your raw score into a scaled score. Purpose of Scaled Scores Raw scores are definitely easier to calculate than scaled scores. But testing companies want to make sure that test scores can be fairly and accurately compared even if test takers take different versions, or forms, of the test on different dates. Scaled scores allow for accurate comparisons and ensure that people who took a more difficult test are not penalized, and people who took a less difficult test are not given an unfair advantage.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Military Crash and Rescue Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Military Crash and Rescue - Research Paper Example How do they coordinate efforts with firefighters and local law enforcement? The key purpose of an emergency rescue mission is securing human life and mitigating the damage. This requires proper coordination of efforts. A review of federal requirements on emergency air response indicates that there is a requirement under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations that obliges all Part 139 certified airports to put in place a functioning airport emergency plan to help in hazard mitigation. Air Emergency Given the potential severity of an air disaster, the state of the emergency response in terms of disaster preparedness is of paramount importance. For any kind of air emergency situation, there are designated procedures that guide how the team ought to act. In cases of fire, for instance, there are procedures for evacuating people from the hazard area. In hostage situations, as well, there is a set of designated procedures on securing safety and retrieval of hostages. The State of Florida has put in place a comprehensive air emergency response regime. Florida’s Aviation Emergency Response Guidebook serves as an informational tool for guiding the response team in the event of an emergency (Lenahan, 1998). Sources retrieved from the annals of United States emergency response incidents such as September 11, 2001 indicate that the FAA is the key agency that deals with air emergencies as long as such emergency situations meet the criteria stipulated under 49 CFR 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records. Further research illustrates that there is a round-the-clock aviation safety hotline - (800) 255?1111 - for reporting air emergencies (Barber, 2012). A review of federal requirements on emergence air response indicates that there is a requirement under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations that obliges all Part 139 certified airports to put in place a functioni ng airport emergency plan. Having a responsive emergency plan helps in hazard mitigation since aviation emergencies involve mass casualties. Speed and responsiveness is the most significant measure of suitability in air emergency plans. The goal is to minimize casualties and secure the aircraft (Gabriel, 1985). Mayday Mayday is the commonly accepted international code of distress for aviators and marines. Once an aircraft or passenger plane encounters a technical issue, the pilot notifies airport authorities by placing a call. The designated procedure requires the issuer of the distress to utter the word three times â€Å"Mayday! Mayday! Mayday!† (Thompson, 2011) to specify it is a distress call. The federal emergency code stipulates the procedure through which a civilian aircrafts relaying a mayday call in the United States airspace ought to follow. The designated protocol is â€Å"Mayday, Mayday, Mayday!† followed by the name of station addressed, aircraft type and c all-sign, nature of the distress, present position (in case the aircraft is lost, the last known physical position and time could be useful) weather situation, pilot’s request, flight level/ altitude, remaining amount of fuel remaining, and number of passengers on the plane (Thompson, 2011). The communicator may also add any other useful information to assist in the rescue operation. While this is the designated prot

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Khmer Rouge Tribunal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Khmer Rouge Tribunal - Essay Example In the trial, only four cases were planned to be carried out. The first case was against Kaing Guek Eav. Eav was the chief of the S-21 prison and was sentenced for more than 15,000 murders and crime against humanity. Eav was sentenced to a life sentence in prison. The rest of the three cases did not yield the same results. In Case two, only two people, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan were tried. One of the defendants, Ieng Sary, the foreign minister of Khmer Rouge died while his wife, Ieng Thirit was declared mentally unstable. The other two cases were never brought to trial. In this case, even the defenders’ names were not officially released. There were many others who were also not brought to trial. The government, in this case, was to blame as it forestalled on getting the perpetrators convicted. One reason behind this is that the present government is formed of many individuals who themselves participated in the incident. These people fear their own indictment and therefore t ry their best to clog the trial. In my opinion, these trials could have served as an important lesson in future against war crimes, genocides, and crime against humanity. The UN could have set a good example here. However, the tribunal did not have the desired result. It failed to try most of the criminals involved. Only Kaing Guek Eav, the chief officer of the S-21 prison was truly tried in the tribunal. The others found excuses for the trial. These people had power over the government to prevent them from standing trial.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Cultural Context: Alcohol Essay -- Drinking Teenagers Papers

Cultural Context: Alcohol Alcohol has always been a controversial topic in the United States for social, political, and religious reasons. The negative effects of drinking came to the foreground of American concern during the early twentieth century. This was a time of great prosperity followed by the Great Depression. Both of these eras led Americans to turn to or against liquor as the cause or demise of their success. Prohibition marked a change in the American way of life and is best documented by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway in their contemporary works. Both of these authors grappled with alcohol use and abuse within their own lives and writing. On 12:01 a.m. on July 16, 1920 the 18th Amendment went into effect, marking the beginning of a thirteen-year period of national Prohibition in the United States. The movement had existed for decades, but it was not until President Wilson and his southern Democrats came to Washington did it get national momentum, (Parrish, 96). Those who were in favor of Prohibition were collectively known as â€Å"the drys.† The group was generally composed of members of two sub-groups: the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Anti-Saloon League. The Anti-Saloon League considered themselves â€Å"an army of the Lord to wipe out the curse of drink,† (Sann, 26). A large majority of the prohibitionists were church-going, Protestant women from small-towns. The divide in opinion between the cities and the rural and suburban areas was so great that the passage of the 18th Amendment was considered a major cultural victory over large cities (Parrish, 97). The call for temperance was supported by progressive reformers who viewed the â€Å"Devil’s Brew† as the primary source ... ...Company, 1992. p. 95-113 This was the most useful source in understanding the social context of Prohibition, its enforcement, and failure. Sann, Paul. The Lawless Decade. New York : Crown Publishers, Inc, 1957. p. 21-24. 115-120 This book provided background information on the 1920s, the Jazz Age, and the role alcohol played during these time periods as well as the American response to Prohibition. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 This article was extremely helpful in understanding the circumstances during Prohibition and how exactly citizens managed to undermine the law. www.drugtext.org/library/articles/craig103.htm This article emphasized and provided a glimpse into the lawlessness of Prohibition and the operation of speakeasies. www.pbs.org/wnet/newyork/laic/episode5/topic1/e5_t1_s2-rr.html Cultural Context: Alcohol Essay -- Drinking Teenagers Papers Cultural Context: Alcohol Alcohol has always been a controversial topic in the United States for social, political, and religious reasons. The negative effects of drinking came to the foreground of American concern during the early twentieth century. This was a time of great prosperity followed by the Great Depression. Both of these eras led Americans to turn to or against liquor as the cause or demise of their success. Prohibition marked a change in the American way of life and is best documented by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway in their contemporary works. Both of these authors grappled with alcohol use and abuse within their own lives and writing. On 12:01 a.m. on July 16, 1920 the 18th Amendment went into effect, marking the beginning of a thirteen-year period of national Prohibition in the United States. The movement had existed for decades, but it was not until President Wilson and his southern Democrats came to Washington did it get national momentum, (Parrish, 96). Those who were in favor of Prohibition were collectively known as â€Å"the drys.† The group was generally composed of members of two sub-groups: the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Anti-Saloon League. The Anti-Saloon League considered themselves â€Å"an army of the Lord to wipe out the curse of drink,† (Sann, 26). A large majority of the prohibitionists were church-going, Protestant women from small-towns. The divide in opinion between the cities and the rural and suburban areas was so great that the passage of the 18th Amendment was considered a major cultural victory over large cities (Parrish, 97). The call for temperance was supported by progressive reformers who viewed the â€Å"Devil’s Brew† as the primary source ... ...Company, 1992. p. 95-113 This was the most useful source in understanding the social context of Prohibition, its enforcement, and failure. Sann, Paul. The Lawless Decade. New York : Crown Publishers, Inc, 1957. p. 21-24. 115-120 This book provided background information on the 1920s, the Jazz Age, and the role alcohol played during these time periods as well as the American response to Prohibition. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 This article was extremely helpful in understanding the circumstances during Prohibition and how exactly citizens managed to undermine the law. www.drugtext.org/library/articles/craig103.htm This article emphasized and provided a glimpse into the lawlessness of Prohibition and the operation of speakeasies. www.pbs.org/wnet/newyork/laic/episode5/topic1/e5_t1_s2-rr.html

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Bellboy

Lewis also appears in a speaking role playing himself escorted by a large entourage, as his bellhop counterpart simultaneously emerges from a crowded elevator. Principal photography took place from February 8 to March 5, 1960 and marked Jerry Lewis's debut as a director. Filming took place at the Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami Beach, Florida; Lewis would film during the day and perform in the nightclub at night. [l] Before he began, Lewis consulted his friend Stan Laurel about the script.Since Laurel had worked in silent films and was familiar with pantomime, he offered suggestions. It is unknown if Lewis actually used any of Laurel's ideas in the production. [2] But it is believed Lewis paid homage to the comic by naming his character ‘Stanley' after him. A Stan Laurel-like character also appears throughout the story, portrayed by writer and impressionist Bill Richmond. The film marked an pioneering use of a video assist system, providingLewis a way to see the action even though he was in the scene. [3] Paramount wanted to have a Jerry Lewis movie for summer release (in North America). The movie that it wanted to release was Cinderfella, which had finished shooting in December 1959. Lewis wanted to hold back the release of that movie for the Christmas 1960 holiday and Paramount only agreed if Jerry could deliver another movie for summer. Therefore, while playing an engagement in Miami Beach, Lewis came up with this.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Anxiety and Depression - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1039 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/01 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Anxiety Essay Did you like this example? Abstract Anxiety and depression are both very big topics that are within psychological disorders. There are some opinions saying that they should not be considered a psychological disorder, but thats not what this is about. Anxiety and depression takes place in many peoples lives. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Anxiety and Depression" essay for you Create order It affects different people in different ways, but still all come back to general anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression are both disorders than have been taken to even very young children. The general age group average is from adolescence to middle age adults. Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with both anxiety and depression compared to men. Anxiety is the feeling and behavior of worryness and fear strong enough to interfere with a persons daily life. Depression is a disorder that is both very serious and very common. It negatively affects individuals, causing them to feel extreme sadness and loss of interest in doing something once before enjoyed. Both anxiety and depression have different variations, are common and serious, and also correlate to each other heavily. The only positive side to them are that they are treatable through different ways. Anxiety and Depression Anxiety and depression are both very common and serious disorders. They affect a wide variety of people in a variety of ways. These disorders have the power to affect a diagnosed individuals daily life (Chen 5). It overwhelms the individual with feelings of sadness and worryness also leading to demoralized attidudes. Anxiety and depression both heavily correlate to each other, people who are diagnosed with anxiety or depression will most likely be diagnosed with both disorders. These disorders usually take place in people who are of adolescence and middle aged, but can also be a part of young childrens lives. Thankfully, both of these disorders can be treated. There are various ways to treating these, some easier and less complicated than others. Even saying so, certain stages of these disorders are curable but it takes a lot of effort. If a person were to be diagnosed with anxiety they would most likely also be diagnosed with depression. It also works the other way around. Anxiety is the overwhelming feeling of worryness and nervousness in the thought of an questionable outcome. Depression is the overwhelming feeling of sadness which can lead to heavy demoralization. Thoughts of doubt and nervous behavior are the drives of these disorders and the reason why they are paired together very oftenly. There are general anxiety and depression, but that is just the disorder at 1st base. There are very high occurrences of social anxiety and major depression disorders. These are very common and are looked at as high developed stages of anxiety and depression. Major depressive disorder is depression on a different scale. It causes severe loss in interest of doing things once enjoyed by the individual, suicidal thoughts, weight gain or loss, heavy feeling of being tired and having no energy, and also can affect peoples sleep. If this goes on for more than two years it will be looked at as persistent depressive disorder. Social anxiety is anxiety, but impacting more heavily while in crowds and surrounded by strangers or even regular people in your daily life. The disorders explained above have the ability and power to take control of peoples lives. Both anxiety and depression at any level of severity can be able to disrupt ones personal life and activities. It can fill their life with doubt and they will be stuck in a state with no confidence. Anxiety can make people uneasy about certain situations and cause them to overthink. This leaves them with no solution and no way of proving anything without action. Depression at any level will be able to fill anyones life with sadness. Crippling anxiety and depression are so severe that it makes it hard for a person to do basic things and make it unable for them to work or even live their lives. Major depression affect 3 to 5 percent of children and adolescence(Bhatia 1). Common age groups are within the adolescence and middle aged group, yet they are still able to reside in the very young and the elderly. Surprisingly women are more likely to have anxiety and depression. One main reason would be because of a social standard set for women and how they perceive other want in a woman. Any slight difference can get to a persons head in an instant. Just like people who are obese and/or have diabetes (Iversen), they stand out and end up getting social anxiety due to them overthinking of people judging them. The society is really what starts up a lot of the population of anxiety and depression because of how we see each other and ourselves and how one wants to be seen as a person. Thankfully, both disorders have ways that we use to treat them. These treatments can vary from short-term to long-term. Anxiety and depression are both very common yet serious disorders. It goes against hope in peoples conscious. It infects their minds with feelings of worry, sadness, loneliness, and nervousness. Although it is such a big rising disorder which claims many lives, it is treatable. There are various ways in treating anxiety and depression. One well-known one would be antidepressant medication. Another which works in wonders and helps long-term would be therapy. A percentage of people who have anxiety attacks or suffer from severe depression go and meet a contemporary and alternative therapists. Many who do meet with a therapist have been able to fight off the harsh feelings of anxiety and depression (Kessler 1). Antidepressants seem to work short term and long term, but they are medications and may have side effect with extended use. On the other hand, therapists know how to treat patients with anxiety and severe depression in ways that medication may not be able to surpass. They do not affect a persons physical health, instead they help them mentally stabilize themselves. The bad case about anxiety and depression that is making it such a big issue, is that people are unable to confess to their doctors and are unwilling to seek help. There will always big a battle, but we are advancing and will come to a full solution.